Everything about steel you should know

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Everything about steel you should know

Steel profile

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, containing less than 2% of carbon, manganese (Mn) content of less than 1% and including some other chemical elements such as sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), silicon ( Si) and oxygen. Steel is one of the most important materials for engineering and construction. Steel is widely and widely applied in many different fields, we can see the presence of steel everywhere, the steel makes great works, skyscrapers, from the modern aircraft or luxury cars, until the tables, chairs, and pens we come across every day.

How steel is manufactured

Currently, there are two main methods in the world used to produce steel, which is produced through basic furnaces (BOF) and through electric arc furnaces (EAF).

The biggest difference between these two methods is the involvement of input materials in the manufacturing process. The raw materials involved in the production process of the basic oxygen furnace are iron ore, coal, scrap steel, while the composition of raw materials used mainly in electric arc furnaces is scrap steel. Whether. Depending on the purpose of the manufacturer as well as the amount of scrap steel available to adjust the increase or decrease of raw material components in the production process in the most appropriate way.

Currently, 70% of the world's steel production is produced through basic oxygen furnaces.

Step 1:

First, the iron ore and other materials are melted at high temperatures, usually 1300 degrees Celsius, after the melting mixture is obtained, the impurities mixed in the mixture will be collected to obtain molten metal.

This is also the stage to determine the steel grades produced, by adjusting the composition and percentage of input materials appropriately.

Step 2:

After acquiring the molten metal mixture, casting will be conducted to create steel billets, usually with billet types such as billet, billet (slab), and bloom (bloom embryo). type of workpiece can replace slab and billet).

Step 3:

Embryos are put into the mill to laminate and shape to the required size. The products after rolling and forming will produce products such as construction steel, shaped steel, rolled steel, sheet steel ...

With the method of producing steel by electric arc

Scrap steel will be put into the furnace at a certain temperature, in addition to scrap steel, other additives such as nickel, chromium, sulfur ... are also added to adjust the physical and mechanical characteristics of product. Thermal power can be supplemented by blowing oxygen into the furnace. About 29% of the world's steel production is produced using this method.

The remaining 1% of steel is produced by OHF, which separates impurities and excess carbon from the molten steel mixture. This method is applied when the steel production process is in difficulty, the fuel source and the furnace temperature do not meet the production process. However, today, this method is no longer popular because of the negative impact on the environment.

Most of the iron and steel is maintained for decades or longer before turning it into scrap steel, so the source of scrap to produce steel by the electric arc method is not enough. Therefore, most factories only take advantage of the small amount of scrap steel available to put into steel production using the basic furnace method.

Typically, the method of manufacturing scrap steel will save a lot of fuel, which can save up to 65% of energy compared to using the basic method.

Most steel smelters and steelmakers have a quantity of scrap steel, steel that does not meet quality standards and cannot be sold in the market, they will be used to recycle and produce new products. That is reusable.

How many types of steel.

Not only is there a single product called steel, it has 3,500 different types of steel, they are not only different in type but each type of steel has many different steel grades. These steels have different physical and chemical properties. Diversity in types to fully meet the needs of many industries and fields.

It is estimated that more than 75% of the new steel was created in nearly 20 years, if the famous Eiffel Tower in France was rebuilt from the beginning, it would require only a quarter of the amount of steel spent in the beginning to build it.

Modern cars are made of high-strength steel, which has higher rigidity and durability, but is 35% lighter in weight than previously manufactured cars.

How many tons of steel are produced annually

The world's crude steel output is produced annually up to 1,621 million tons (2015 statistics) and 1,670 million tons (2014 statistics) are produced.

Is steel environmentally friendly?

Steel is very environmentally friendly, it is fully recyclable, compared to other materials, the fuel needed to produce steel is also safer. In addition, high-class and specialized steel products are also used in the manufacture of cars, aircraft, railway tracks, etc., making use of steel in these areas saves a source of fuel and expenses. significant charge. In recent decades, the entire steel industry has been constantly trying and trying to limit negative impacts on the environment. Source of energy consumption and emissions as of today increased ½ compared to the early 1960s.

How is steel recycled?

Due to the different adjectives present in steel, it is easily separated in the flow of waste impurities for recycling. The physical and chemical properties of steel are completely unchanged whether it is recycled thousands or thousands of times.

Electric arc furnaces can use the only source of steel scrap to produce steel products.

Which country produces the most steel

China is the country with the most steel production, accounting for a quarter of the world's steel output, followed by the US, Japan, South Korea, India ...

Who was the first inventor of steel?

There is no book or history that records the first person who made steel, dating from 200 BC, people have found traces of steel in many different cultures and territories around the world and often only There are several steel shapes made for everyday use. Later, in the mid-1850s, an English inventor, for the first time created a method to produce steel in large quantities. Steel is manufactured based on the Bessemer process, the principle of this process is to heat iron ore and other chemicals, then blow oxygen into the blast furnace, to separate impurities from the metal mixture, This method is similar to the steel production method we use today.

Why does steel rust?

Many materials are formed through chemical reactions, steel is no exception, steel is left in the air, will react with oxygen and water in nature and will return to its original form, That is iron oxide.

Nowadays, with modern steel production technology, it is possible to prevent rust and oxidation of steel by various methods. For example, paint is used to make car coats, or glazes are used to protect refrigerators and other beauty items. Other ways, such as nickel and chromium, are added during the manufacturing process to form stainless steel.

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